Helping Define IEEE 802.11 and other Wireless LAN Standards IEEE 802.11 wireless local area networks Intel is a longtime contributor to the IEEE 802.11 standard, a group of specifications developed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) for wireless local area networks (WLANs). Much of the current work on IEEE 802.11 centers on increasing transmission speeds and range, improving Quality of Service (QoS), and adding new capabilities. Now that IEEE 802.11n, the latest version of IEEE 802.11, is shipping in volume, the focus is on even faster solutions, specifically IEEE 802.11ac and IEEE 802.11ad. These amendments aim to provide gigabit speed WLAN. The difference is their Quality of Service (QoS) frequencies. IEEE 802.11ac will deliver its throughput In computer networking, QoS doesn’t over the 5 GHz band, affording easy migration from IEEE refer to achieved service quality— 802.11n, which also uses 5 GHz band (as well as the 2.4 though it plays an important role in it. band). IEEE 802.11ad, targeting shorter range Instead, QoS is about using resource reservation control mechanisms to give transmissions, will use the unlicensed 60 GHz band. different priority to different applications, users, or data flows to ensure a certain Through range improvements and faster wireless level of performance. For example, a transmissions, IEEE 802.11ac and ad will: particular bit rate, along with limits on delay, jitter, and packet dropping  Improve the performance of high definition TV probability and/or bit error rate, may be (HDTV) and digital video streams in the home and guaranteed for a real‐time streaming advanced applications in enterprise networks multimedia application such as an online  Help businesses reduce capital expenditures by game or video. For such delay‐sensitive applications, QoS guarantees are freeing them from the cost of laying and important, when network capacity is maintaining Ethernet cabling insufficient for all the concurrent data  Increase the reach and performance of hotspots flow (i.e., the video and other less  Allow connections to handle more clients sensitive applications such as email and web browsing).  Improve overall user experience where and whenever people are connected The IEEE 802.11 Working Group (WG) consists of individuals who are experts in wireless technology and includes a number of Intel employees. Intel sees IEEE 802.11 as vital to continuing to improve and expand the wireless experience of many devices using its products. This case study takes a brief look at the history of IEEE 802.11, current efforts to improve the standard, and potential improvements in the future. A short history of IEEE 802.11 802.11, or “Wi‐Fi” as it is popularly known, sprang into Did you know? existence as a result of a decision in 1985 by the United The term "Wi‐Fi" was invented by the organization now known as the Wi‐Fi States Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to Alliance. The term "IEEE 802.11b‐ open several bands of the wireless spectrum for use compliant" was considered too long and without a government license. These so‐called "garbage hard for consumers to remember for bands" were allocated to equipment such as microwave consumers. "Wi‐Fi" meant nothing at the ovens which use radio waves to heat food. To operate in time, but sounded like "hi‐fi," a familiar electronics term. Later, the meaning "wireless fidelity" was attached to Wi‐Fi.1

Helping Define IEEE 802.11 and other Wireless LAN Standards 
IEEE 802.11 wireless local area networks 
Intel is a longtime contributor to the IEEE 802.11 standard, a group of specifications developed 
by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) for wireless local area networks 
(WLANs). Much of the current work on IEEE 802.11 centers on increasing transmission speeds 
and range, improving Quality of Service (QoS), and adding new capabilities. 
Now that IEEE 802.11n, the latest version of IEEE 802.11, is shipping in volume, the focus is on 
even faster solutions, specifically IEEE 802.11ac and IEEE 802.11ad. These amendments aim to 
provide gigabit speed WLAN. The difference is their Quality of Service (QoS) 
frequencies. IEEE 802.11ac will deliver its throughput In computer networking, QoS doesn’t 
over the 5 GHz band, affording easy migration from IEEE refer to achieved service quality— 
802.11n, which also uses 5 GHz band (as well as the 2.4 though it plays an important role in it. 
band). IEEE 802.11ad, targeting shorter range Instead, QoS is about using resource 
reservation control mechanisms to give 
transmissions, will use the unlicensed 60 GHz band. different priority to different applications, 
users, or data flows to ensure a certain 
Through range improvements and faster wireless level of performance. For example, a 
transmissions, IEEE 802.11ac and ad will: particular bit rate, along with limits on 
delay, jitter, and packet dropping 
 Improve the performance of high definition TV probability and/or bit error rate, may be 
(HDTV) and digital video streams in the home and guaranteed for a real‐time streaming 
advanced applications in enterprise networks multimedia application such as an online 
 Help businesses reduce capital expenditures by game or video. For such delay‐sensitive 
applications, QoS guarantees are 
freeing them from the cost of laying and important, when network capacity is 
maintaining Ethernet cabling insufficient for all the concurrent data 
 Increase the reach and performance of hotspots flow (i.e., the video and other less 
 Allow connections to handle more clients sensitive applications such as email and 
web browsing). 
 Improve overall user experience where and 
whenever people are connected 
The IEEE 802.11 Working Group (WG) consists of individuals who are experts in wireless 
technology and includes a number of Intel employees. Intel sees IEEE 802.11 as vital to 
continuing to improve and expand the wireless experience of many devices using its products. 
This case study takes a brief look at the history of IEEE 802.11, current efforts to improve the 
standard, and potential improvements in the future. 
A short history of IEEE 802.11 
802.11, or “Wi‐Fi” as it is popularly known, sprang into Did you know? 
existence as a result of a decision in 1985 by the United The term

Helping Define IEEE 802.11 and other Wireless LAN Standards IEEE 802.11 wireless local area networks Intel is a longtime contributor to the IEEE 802.11 standard, a group of specifications developed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) for wireless local area networks (WLANs). Much of the current work on IEEE 802.11 centers on increasing transmission speeds and range, improving Quality of Service (QoS), and adding new capabilities. Now that IEEE 802.11n, the latest version of IEEE 802.11, is shipping in volume, the focus is on even faster solutions, specifically IEEE 802.11ac and IEEE 802.11ad. These amendments aim to provide gigabit speed WLAN. The difference is their Quality of Service (QoS) frequencies. IEEE 802.11ac will deliver its throughput In computer networking, QoS doesn’t over the 5 GHz band, affording easy migration from IEEE refer to achieved service quality— 802.11n, which also uses 5 GHz band (as well as the 2.4 though it plays an important role in it. band). IEEE 802.11ad, targeting shorter range Instead, QoS is about using resource reservation control mechanisms to give transmissions, will use the unlicensed 60 GHz band. different priority to different applications, users, or data flows to ensure a certain Through range improvements and faster wireless level of performance. For example, a transmissions, IEEE 802.11ac and ad will: particular bit rate, along with limits on delay, jitter, and packet dropping  Improve the performance of high definition TV probability and/or bit error rate, may be (HDTV) and digital video streams in the home and guaranteed for a real‐time streaming advanced applications in enterprise networks multimedia application such as an online  Help businesses reduce capital expenditures by game or video. For such delay‐sensitive applications, QoS guarantees are freeing them from the cost of laying and important, when network capacity is maintaining Ethernet cabling insufficient for all the concurrent data  Increase the reach and performance of hotspots flow (i.e., the video and other less  Allow connections to handle more clients sensitive applications such as email and web browsing).  Improve overall user experience where and whenever people are connected The IEEE 802.11 Working Group (WG) consists of individuals who are experts in wireless technology and includes a number of Intel employees. Intel sees IEEE 802.11 as vital to continuing to improve and expand the wireless experience of many devices using its products. This case study takes a brief look at the history of IEEE 802.11, current efforts to improve the standard, and potential improvements in the future. A short history of IEEE 802.11 802.11, or “Wi‐Fi” as it is popularly known, sprang into Did you know? existence as a result of a decision in 1985 by the United The term "Wi‐Fi" was invented by the organization now known as the Wi‐Fi States Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to Alliance. The term "IEEE 802.11b‐ open several bands of the wireless spectrum for use compliant" was considered too long and without a government license. These so‐called "garbage hard for consumers to remember for bands" were allocated to equipment such as microwave consumers. "Wi‐Fi" meant nothing at the ovens which use radio waves to heat food. To operate in time, but sounded like "hi‐fi," a familiar electronics term. Later, the meaning "wireless fidelity" was attached to Wi‐Fi.1

these bands though, devices were required to use "spread spectrum" technology. This technology spreads a radio signal out over a wide range of frequencies, making the signal less susceptible to interference and difficult to intercept. Wireless LAN Throughput by IEEE Standard Media Access IEEE Control Layer, Over‐the‐Air WLAN Service Access (OTA) Estimates Standard ...Point (MAC SAP) Estimates IEEE 11 Mbps 5 Mbps 802.11b 25 Mbps (when IEEE 54 Mbps .11b is not 802.11g present) IEEE 54 Mbps 25 Mbps 802.11a IEEE Up to 600 Mbps Up to 400 Mbps 802.11n Up to 867 Mbps Up to 600 Mbps with 2 antennas with 2 antennas IEEE and 80 MHz; Up and 80 MHz; Up 802.11ac to 1.3 Gbps with to 900 Mbps 3 antennas and with 3 antennas 80 MHz and 80 MHz At least 1.1 Gbps Up to 700 Mbps (up to 4.6 Gbps in IEEE for 1.1 Gbps OTA some first 802.11ad (up to 3 Gbps for generation 4.6 Gbps OTA) products) more advanced form of modulation called Using OFDM in the 2.4 GHz band, IEEE In 1990, a new IEEE committee called IEEE 802.11 was set up to look into getting an open standard started. Demand for wireless devices was so high that by the time the standard was published in 1997, devices adhering to the new standard were already shipping. Developed under the rules of the IEEE (commonly pronounced as “I triple e”), the IEEE 802.11 standard defines an over‐the‐air interface between a wireless client and a base station (or access point), or between two or more wireless clients. As capabilities are added to the IEEE 802.11, some become known by the name of the amendment. For example, many people recognize IEEE 802.11b, IEEE 802.11g and IEEE 802.11n as popular wireless solutions for connecting to networks. Each of these amendments defines a maximum speed of operation, the radio frequency band of operation, how data is encoded for transmission, and the characteristics of the transmitter and receiver. The first two variants were IEEE 802.11b (which operates in the industrial, medical and scientific— ISM— band of 2.4 GHz), and IEEE 802.11a, which operates in the available 5 GHz bands (5.15‐5.35 GHz, 5.47‐5.725 GHz, and 5.725‐5.825 GHz). A third variant, IEEE 802.11g, was ratified in June 2003. Both IEEE 802.11a and IEEE 802.11g use a orthogonal frequency‐division multiplexing (OFDM). 802.11g achieves speeds of up to 54 Mbps. The advent of IEEE 802.11n In the constant quest for greater transmission speed, a High Throughput standardization effort was launched, and IEEE 802.11n, ratified in October 2009, became the fourth IEEE 802.11 variant. Intel product groups and Intel research and development employees contributed to the development of the IEEE 802.11n standard from its beginning to completion, playing major roles in the IEEE 802.11n Task Group and providing technical assistance. IEEE 802.11n leveraged many important specifications of its predecessors, but also introduced significant 2 advancements in wireless technology. Some of Intel’s contributions included the development of channel models, usage models, functional requirements, and comparison criteria. Intel Read the full Helping Define IEEE 802.11 and other Wireless LAN Standards IEEE 802.11 wireless local area networks Intel is a longtime contributor to the IEEE 802.11 standard, a group of specifications developed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) for wireless local area networks (WLANs). Much of the current work on IEEE 802.11 centers on increasing transmission speeds and range, improving Quality of Service (QoS), and adding new capabilities. Now that IEEE 802.11n, the latest version of IEEE 802.11, is shipping in volume, the focus is on even faster solutions, specifically IEEE 802.11ac and IEEE 802.11ad. These amendments aim to provide gigabit speed WLAN. The difference is their Quality of Service (QoS) frequencies. IEEE 802.11ac will deliver its throughput In computer networking, QoS doesn’t over the 5 GHz band, affording easy migration from IEEE refer to achieved service quality— 802.11n, which also uses 5 GHz band (as well as the 2.4 though it plays an important role in it. band). IEEE 802.11ad, targeting shorter range Instead, QoS is about using resource reservation control mechanisms to give transmissions, will use the unlicensed 60 GHz band. different priority to different applications, users, or data flows to ensure a certain Through range improvements and faster wireless level of performance. For example, a transmissions, IEEE 802.11ac and ad will: particular bit rate, along with limits on delay, jitter, and packet dropping  Improve the performance of high definition TV probability and/or bit error rate, may be (HDTV) and digital video streams in the home and guaranteed for a real‐time streaming advanced applications in enterprise networks multimedia application such as an online  Help businesses reduce capital expenditures by game or video. For such delay‐sensitive applications, QoS guarantees are freeing them from the cost of laying and important, when network capacity is maintaining Ethernet cabling insufficient for all the concurrent data  Increase the reach and performance of hotspots flow (i.e., the video and other less  Allow connections to handle more clients sensitive applications such as email and web browsing).  Improve overall user experience where and whenever people are connected The IEEE 802.11 Working Group (WG) consists of individuals who are experts in wireless technology and includes a number of Intel employees. Intel sees IEEE 802.11 as vital to continuing to improve and expand the wireless experience of many devices using its products. This case study takes a brief look at the history of IEEE 802.11, current efforts to improve the standard, and potential improvements in the future. A short history of IEEE 802.11 802.11, or “Wi‐Fi” as it is popularly known, sprang into Did you know? existence as a result of a decision in 1985 by the United The term "Wi‐Fi" was invented by the organization now known as the Wi‐Fi States Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to Alliance. The term "IEEE 802.11b‐ open several bands of the wireless spectrum for use compliant" was considered too long and without a government license. These so‐called "garbage hard for consumers to remember for bands" were allocated to equipment such as microwave consumers. "Wi‐Fi" meant nothing at the ovens which use radio waves to heat food. To operate in time, but sounded like "hi‐fi," a familiar electronics term. Later, the meaning "wireless fidelity" was attached to Wi‐Fi.1.

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